Learner Simulation

In order to process and comprehend chemistry concepts, hands-on, active learning is a dynamic way to gain a deeper understanding. The following interactive simulations and thought activities will strengthen your recall and comprehension.

Molecule Shapes: Simulation

Investigate molecule shapes in 3D by building molecules by adding single, double, or triple bonded atoms or lone pairs of electrons to a central atom. Compare the shape and bond angles in real molecules to the values predicted using VSEPR theory. There are two modes as an option to run the simulation:

 1. Model Mode:

2. Real Molecules Mode:


Molecule Shapes: Thought Activity

As you go through the simulation, think about and answer the following questions:

  • There are cases where atoms are as far apart as possible but the angles between atoms are not the same. What shapes are these, and why might this happen?
  • Explain why the bond angle in a water  molecule is 104.5 °,  not 109.5 ° as shown in the model view.
  • Explain why the bond angles in some real molecules do not match the bond angle predicted by VSEPR theory – for example, H2O, SO2, CIF3, NH3, SF4, BrF5.
  • Build a molecule that has an octahedral electron geometry and a square planar molecule geometry.

Proceed to Comprehension Check